Current position:observation site > Sites > Water Ecosystem > Tai Lake


 The Taihu Eddy Flux Network is located in Tai Lake which is the third big freshwater lake of China and located in the Yangtze delta. The area of Tai Lake (30º5'40"–30º32'58"N, 119º52'32"–120º36'10"E) is 2400 km2 with average depth of 1.9 m. 5 observe sites situate east, west, south, north and middle, respectively, and present different biological characteristics and wind conditions. The geographic location of 5 observe sites is : BFG (31.1685ºN, 120.3972 ºE), XLS (30.9972ºN, 120.1344ºE), DPK(31.2661ºN,119.9312ºE), MLW(31.4197ºN,120.2139ºE), PTS(31.2323ºN,120.1086ºE)


 The climate of this area is typical sub-tropic warm-moist climate with annual precipitation is 1122 mm. The mean annual air temperature over this area is 16.2℃ with the annual average temperature dew point at 14.1℃. The density of annual solar radiation in this area is 143.8 W/m2. Statistics show that the prevailing wind in summer of this area is southeast wind and northeast wind in winter. The annual wind speed is 2.6 m/s.

Vegetation and soil


Observation system

 The OPEC system and conventional meteorological sounding system is installed at each observe site. In addition, the MLW site is also fitted with H2O/CO2/CH4 flux gradient observation system and H2O isotope flux gradient observation system, while the BFG site is fitted with open eddy system of CH4. We can measure the solubility greenhouse gases and the pH of water body at the same time and observe the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water isotope.

Principal Investigator

Shoudong Liu


Station director

Xuihui Li

Assistant station director

Shoudong Liu



Wei Wang

Mi Zhang



[1] Lee X, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, Z Gao, C Cao, C Hu, Z Hu, S Shen, Y Wang, X Wen, Q Xiao, J Xu, J Yang, M Zhang (2014) The Taihu Eddy Flux Network: an observational program on energy, water, and greenhouse gas fluxes of a large freshwater lake. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 95: 1583-1594.

[2] Xiao W, S Liu, H Li, Q Xiao, W Wang, Z Hu, C Hu, Y Gao, J Shen, X Zhao, M Zhang, X Lee (2014) A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface. Environmental Science and Technology 48: 14490−14498.

[3] Wang W, W Xiao, C Cao, Z Gao, Z Hu, S Liu, S Shen, L Wang, Q Xiao, J Xu, D Yang, X Lee (2014) Temporal and spatial variations in radiation and energy balance across a large freshwater lake in China. Journal of Hydrology 511: 811-824.

[4] Xiao W, S Liu, W Wang, D Yang, J Xu, Chang Cao, H Li, X Lee (2013) Transfer coefficients of momentum, sensible heat and water vapour in the atmospheric surface layer of a large freshwater lake. Boundary-Layer Meteorology 148: 479-494.

[5] Deng B, S Liu, W Xiao, W Wang, J Jin, X Lee (2013) Evaluation of the CLM4 lake model at a large and shallow freshwater lake. Journal of Hydrometeorology 14: 636-649.

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